NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs) coordinate and conduct dissemination and implementation (D&I) research activities relevant to disease prevention. Divisions, branches, and programs within the ICs are a useful resource for identifying D&I research priorities and opportunities.
The Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health Study Section at the CSR reviews applications intending to bridge gaps between public health, clinical research, and everyday practice by building a scientific knowledge base about mechanisms whereby health information, interventions, and scientifically based clinical practices are adopted in public health and health care service use in a variety of settings. The focus of the studies reviewed is on the transmission and implementation of knowledge from scientific discovery to transform health care delivery, improve health outcomes, and manage acute and chronic illness.
The FIC and its NIH partners invest in research on a variety of topics vital to global health, including implementation science. The Division of International Training and Research (DITR) administers research grants, training grants, and fellowship programs at sites in more than 100 countries and has a substantial portfolio of implementation science projects. For example, the DITR is involved in the Global Environmental and Occupational Health (GEOHealth) program described below.
In partnership with NIH Institutes and Centers, the Center for Global Health Studies (CGHS) identifies emerging research priorities, stimulates new scientific directions in global health, and supports multidisciplinary collaboration and short-term training to address pressing global health problems. The Center convenes program implementers, policymakers, and leading scientists from the NIH, low- and middle-income countries, and the United States to discuss critical research priorities, opportunities, and synergies around specific global health challenges. The CGHS also moves the implementation science agenda forward by promoting relevant research methods and frameworks, and fostering the development of new approaches and skills to translate scientific evidence into health policy and practice. For example, the CGHS hosts the Clean Cooking Implementation Science Network described below.
The FIC also has an Implementation Science Information and Resources page with D&I news, funding opportunity announcements, and a variety of online resources.
The Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) funds D&I research conducted through research institutions in the United States and internationally. The DCCPS Implementation Science page provides information about D&I research and links to D&I research tools, training, and educational opportunities, recent publications, and funding opportunities. The DCCPS also manages two D&I initiatives, Research to Reality and Research-Tested Intervention Programs, described below.
The Implementation Science Branch leads the NHLBI effort in:
The Blood Epidemiology and Clinical Therapeutics Branch provides oversight, support, and stimulation of epidemiologic, clinical, and implementation research throughout the spectrum of blood science. Branch responsibilities include the oversight, support, and stimulation of implementation science and research [T4 Research] and serving as scientific liaison for epidemiologic, clinical, and implementation research across the division, NHLBI, NIH, and partner federal agencies.
The Division of Behavioral and Social Research (DBSR) supports social, behavioral, and economic research and research training on the processes of aging at both the individual and societal level. Behavioral and social research fosters cross-disciplinary research, at multiple levels from genetics to cross-national comparative research, and at stages from basic through translational. The two areas within the DBSR that have the largest D&I portfolios include the Behavior Change and Behavioral Interventions Section and the Population and Social Processes Branch.
The Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology (DGCG) supports research on health and disease in the aged, and research on aging over the human life span, including its relationships to health outcomes. The DGCG comprises three major research areas, administered by its three Branches: Geriatrics, Clinical Gerontology, and Clinical Trials. The DGCG, which supports D&I projects, is especially interested in facilitating clinical translational research for the development of new interventions for age-related conditions, prevention and treatment of multiple chronic conditions in the elderly, as well as studies that help to promote evidence-based geriatric care and inform policies affecting older adults.
The Division of Treatment and Recovery Research supports health services and implementation research projects that test strategies to promote widespread adoption of evidence-based interventions that reduce risky drinking, treat alcohol use disorder, and support long-term recovery.
The Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Branch (BSSRB) at the NIDCR supports basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research to promote oral health, to prevent oral diseases and related disabilities, and to improve management of craniofacial conditions, disorders, and injury. The BSSRB funds D&I research and convened an expert panel meeting (PDF - 224 KB) on implementation science and oral health in 2015. In January 2016, the NIDCR Advisory Council provided concept approval to fund future research in implementation science and oral health.
The Centers for Diabetes Translation Research (CDTRs) within DEM support and enhance diabetes type II translation research (e.g., moving from efficacy to testing effectiveness in real-world practice and communities and dissemination and implementation science) related to diabetes prevention and treatment. The CDTRs are intended to enhance the efficiency, productivity, and multidisciplinary nature of diabetes translation research through shared access to specialized technical expertise and resources. The CDTRs expertise includes intervention adaptation and refinement, and development of measures, techniques, processes, methods, and practices related to diabetes translation research. The CDTRs provide core services and consultation at their local institutions but also serve as resources regionally and nationally.
The Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition (DDN) supports research related to digestive diseases, including the alimentary tract, liver and pancreas, nutrition, and obesity. The DDN has funded D&I projects and supports basic, translational, and clinical research, research training, and career development. The DDN also promotes public awareness and education about digestive diseases and related conditions, and oversees several national public awareness campaigns.
The Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research (DESPR) promotes epidemiology, services, and prevention research to understand and address the range of problems related to drug abuse in order to improve public health. Two branches within DESPR fund D&I research.
The Division of Extramural Research and Training has a substantial portfolio of research in the field of environmental health sciences conducted by investigators in many disciplines from various organizations. The Division funds D&I research, including the GEOHealth program, and supports Partnerships for Environmental Public Health (PEPH), a network of scientists, community members, educators, health care providers, public health officials, and policymakers who share the goal of increasing the impact of environmental public health research at the local, regional, and national level. The PEPH notes the importance of implementation science, research translation, and prevention-focused projects.
The Dissemination and Implementation Research Program includes studies that will contribute to the development of a sound knowledge base on the effective transmission of mental health information to multiple stakeholders and of the process by which efficacious interventions can be adopted within clinical settings. Research on dissemination addresses how information about mental health care interventions are created, packaged, transmitted, and interpreted among a variety of important stakeholder groups. Research on implementation addresses the level to which mental health interventions can fit within real-world service systems. Related topics include multilevel decision-making perspectives about services and interventions in community settings, with special focus on translating behavioral science into applied research in these areas.
The DAR Implementation Science Program encourages research to improve the uptake of efficacious interventions and to inform and enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions in order to maximize community impact. Many interventions are available in the continuum of HIV prevention, HIV testing, and HIV care (e.g., HIV treatment adherence). To maximize public health impact, significant progress is needed to deliver interventions more efficiently and effectively, to transfer interventions from one setting or population to another, and to make better informed choices between competing interventions. This gap between research and implementation impedes success in prevention, care, and treatment programs—both in the number of people reached and effects on health outcomes. The Implementation Science Program works to reduce unknowns and increase the public health impact of HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care services.
The Division of Scientific Programs serves as the focal point for planning, directing, implementing, and managing the Institute's extramural research programs, including its legislatively mandated programs and other research, research training, research capacity building, career development, and community-based participatory research initiatives. The Division manages a diverse portfolio, which includes D&I research and special projects with respect to minority health conditions and other populations with health disparities.
The Division of Extramural Science Programs (DESP) serves the NINR’s extramural research community and the Institute by overseeing policy and management for grants and contracts to support NINR research and training. The DESP supports implementation science and performs specialized functions for the Institute, such as overseeing a nationwide Research Centers program.
Research on dissemination addresses how information about health promotion and care interventions is created, packaged, transmitted, and interpreted among a variety of important stakeholder groups. Implementation science is the study of methods to promote the integration of research findings and evidence into health care policy and practice. It seeks to understand the behavior of health care professionals and other stakeholders as a key variable in the sustainable uptake, adoption, and implementation of evidence-based interventions. The NLM’s Dissemination and Implementation Science resource provides the following D&I information: Search Queries Using NLM Resources: Dissemination and Implementation Science, Data, Tools, and Statistics, Grants, Funding, and Fellowships, Guidelines, Journals, and Other Publications, Key Organizations, and Meetings, Conferences, and Webinars.
The NCATS is involved in all aspects of the translational science spectrum, turning observations in the laboratory, clinic, and community into interventions that improve the health of individuals and the public—from diagnostics and therapeutics to medical procedures and behavioral changes.
The Division of Clinical Innovation (DCI) supports innovation in new technologies and other clinical and translational approaches that may greatly accelerate the process of transforming laboratory discoveries into new treatments for patients. The DCI has a large portfolio of implementation science grants and hosts the Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program, which supports a national network of medical research institutions—called hubs—that work together to improve the translational research process to get more treatments to more patients and the public more quickly.
The OBSSR Dissemination and Implementation page provides an overview of D&I research, information on trainings and conferences, as well as references and resources. In addition to funding D&I research, the OBSSR supports a variety of D&I efforts, including the Annual Conference on the Science of Dissemination and Implementation in Health and the Training Institute on Dissemination and Implementation Research.
The NIH Common Fund is overseen by the Office of Strategic Coordination. The intent of NIH Common Fund programs is to provide a strategic and nimble approach to address key roadblocks in biomedical research that impede basic scientific discovery and its translation into improved human health. In addition, these programs capitalize on emerging opportunities to catalyze the rate of progress across multiple biomedical fields. The Common Fund supports D&I efforts, such as the NIH Health Care Systems (HCS) Research Collaboratory and the Clean Cooking Implementation Science Network, which are described below.