National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
This report discusses the harmful effects of tobacco use, risks associated with pregnancy and adolescents, as well as best practices for the prevention and treatment of tobacco addiction.
This section provides examples of recent scientific advances from NIH-sponsored research, and is not intended to be a comprehensive list.
Risk prediction models developed from an ancillary study of the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) may be useful in the public health sector for identifying individuals who are at risk for adverse smoking outcomes such as relapse among former smokers and continued smoking among current smokers, and for identifying others who may benefit from relapse prevention and smoking cessation interventions.
A new study shows that genetic information can help predict whether medications will be likely to help a person quit smoking. The study brings health care providers a step closer to providing individualized treatment plans to help smokers kick the habit. In a new study, a team of researchers led by Dr. Li-Shiun Chen of Washington University tested whether genetics can be used to personalize therapeutic strategies. “We found that the effects of smoking cessation medications depend on a person’s genes,” Chen says. “If smokers have the risk genes, they don’t quit easily on their own and will benefit greatly from the medications. If smokers don’t have the risk genes, they are likely to quit successfully without the help of medications such as nicotine replacement or bupropion.”
Twentieth-century tobacco control programs and policies were responsible for preventing more than 795,000 lung cancer deaths in the United States from 1975 through 2000, according to an analysis funded by NCI. If all cigarette smoking in this country had ceased following the release of the first Surgeon General’s report on smoking and health in 1964, a total of 2.5 million people would have been spared from death due to lung cancer in the 36 years following that report, according to the analysis. Listen to the Audio Report.
Scientists have found a 20-percent reduction in deaths from lung cancer among current or former heavy smokers who were screened with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) versus those screened by chest X-ray. The primary research results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) were published online in the New England Journal of Medicine. This article provides a more extensive analysis of the data originally reported in November 2010, while providing additional data to the public and research community without barriers to access. Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute , part of the National Institutes of Health, the NLST is a nearly decade-long study that establishes low-dose helical CT as the first validated screening test which can reduce mortality due to lung cancer.