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The purpose of the hypothesis development phase is to identify and synthesize scientific evidence pertaining to a topic of interest to generate new research questions and hypotheses. Evidence can come from basic laboratory research, epidemiologic studies in populations, or previous intervention studies.

  • Child & Adolescent Risk Factors for Young Adult Alcohol Problems
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
    Alcohol abuse is responsible for a large proportion of health problems in this country, and underage drinking is a risk that attracts many developing adolescents and teens. The purpose of this study is to enhance the understanding of the relationships between early-onset drinking, psychosocial development, and alcohol use in young adulthood.

  • Osteoarthritis Initiative Study External Website Policy
    National Institute of Arthritis and Muscoloskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is a major cause of activity limitation and physical disability in older people. This study will observe the disease in a population that is at risk for developing or already has osteoarthritis. The results of this research should aid with prevention of disease onset and progression and, ultimately, create a public domain research resource to facilitate the development of new diagnosis tools and drug development.

  • Environmental and Molecular Epidemiology of Childhood Leukemia
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
    National Cancer Institute (NCI)
    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between environmental, immune, and genetic risk factors for childhood leukemia and how these factors lead to disease onset and progression. Detailed information on immunity and residential exposures to chemicals, including pesticides and persistent organic pollutants, will be available to aid in understanding prevention strategies for childhood leukemia.

  • Cognition-Related Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease
    National Institute on Aging (NIA)
    Many older persons without dementia, a condition which causes loss of cognitive function, meet the criteria for Alzheimer's. This trend indicates that other factors must be involved in determining the extent to which Alzheimer's disease impairs cognition and decreases neural reserve (the ability to retain cognition despite the onset of Alzheimer's disease). This study focuses on examining the risk factors for Alzheimer's to provide more avenues for prevention.

  • Center for Prevention Implementation Methodology for Drug Abuse & Sexual Risk Behavior
    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
    The Center for Prevention Implementation Methodology (Ce-PIM) for Drug Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior is designed to accelerate research implementation using methods that model complex interactions. To have a greater impact on community and public health, Ce-PIM addresses the critical gaps in implementation of drug abuse and HIV/HPV sexual behavior reduction programs to help move them from research into practice.

  • Nitrogen-Containing Drugs and the Risk of Selected Birth Defects
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
    Congenital defects remain the greatest contributor to infant deaths, yet the causes of these defects are largely unknown or poorly understood. This study sets out to inform prevention efforts by examining the effects of prenatal exposures to nitrates, nitrites, and other nitrogen-containing drugs on congenital malformations.

  • Early Life Environmental Toxicant Exposure and Oral Health
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
    The environmental determinants of oral diseases remain largely unknown, and there is a lack of dentists who specialize in environmental health. This program will research how metal exposure affects oral health in children and adults as well as investigate a way to identify prenatal metal exposure. This research has the potential to develop preventive measures for oral disease.

  • Cotton Dust Exposure and Risk of Parkinsonism
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
    Parkinsonism is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. The causes of parkinsonism are largely unknown, but studies have shown that endotoxin exposure from cotton dust is a risk factor for this disease (endotoxins are chemicals released from bacterial decomposition). This study sets out to analyze the risks, severity, and progression of this disease among female textile workers in Shanghai.

  • Novel Therapies to Prevent or Treat Blindness
    National Eye Institute (NEI)
    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy occurs after retinal detachment or severe ocular trauma and can lead to blindness. This condition is found in greater than 50 percent of patients with perforating eye injuries. This study will investigate potential therapeutic methods developed in the laboratory to prevent or treat this condition, with the goals of advancing the field of research and changing the standard of care for affected individuals.

  • Development of an Ocular Herpes Vaccine
    National Eye Institute (NEI)
    A leading cause of blindness in developing countries is Herpes Simplex Virus 1, which infects the cornea and then moves to neurons in the brain. This infection can lead to a preventable blinding ocular disease. This study is aimed at developing a therapeutic vaccine to prevent ocular herpes.